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House is a style of electronic dance music that originated in Chicago, Illinois, USA. It was initially popularized in mid-1980s
discothques catering to the African-American and Latino American, French and gay communities, first in Chicago, then in New York City, New Jersey,
Detroit and Miami. It eventually reached Europe before becoming infused in mainstream pop and dance music worldwide.
House is strongly influenced by elements of soul- and funk-infused varieties of disco. House generally mimics disco's percussion, especially the
use of a prominent bass drum on every beat, but may feature a prominent synthesizer bassline, electronic drums, electronic effects, funk and pop
samples, and reverb- or delay-enhanced vocals.
House is uptempo music for dancing, although by modern dance music standards it is mid-tempo, generally ranging between 118 and 135 bpm. Tempos were
slower in house's early years.
The common element of house is a prominent kick drum on every beat (also known as a four-on-the-floor beat), usually generated by a drum machine or
sampler. The kick drum sound is augmented by various kick fills and extended outs. The drum track is filled out with hi-hat cymbal patterns that
nearly always include an open hi-hat on eighth note off-beats between each kick, and a snare drum or clap sound on beats two and four of every bar.
This pattern is derived from so-called "four-on-the-floor" dance drumbeats of the 1960s and especially the 1970s disco drummers. Producers commonly
layer sampled drum sounds to achieve a more complex sound, and they tailor the mix for large club sound systems, de-emphasizing lower mid-range
frequencies (where the fundamental frequencies of the human voice and other instruments lie) in favor of bass and hi-hats.
Producers use many different sound sources for bass sounds in house, from continuous, repeating electronically-generated lines sequenced on a
synthesizer, such as a Roland SH-101 or TB-303, to studio recordings or samples of live electric bassists, or simply filtered-down samples from whole
stereo recordings of classic funk tracks or any other songs. House bass lines tend to favor notes that fall within a single-octave range, whereas
disco bass lines often alternated between octave-separated notes and would span greater ranges. Some early house productions used parts of bass lines
from earlier disco tracks. For example, producer Mark "Hot Rod" Trollan copied bass line sections from the 1983 Italo disco song "Feels Good (Carrots
Beets)" (by Electra featuring Tara Butler) to form the basis of his 1986 production of "Your Love" by Jamie Principle. Frankie Knuckles used the same
notes in his more famous 1987 version of "Your Love", which also featured Principle on vocals.
Electronically-generated sounds and samples of recordings from genres such as jazz, blues and synth pop are often added to the foundation of the drum
beat and synth bass line. House songs may also include disco, soul-style, or gospel vocals and additional percussion such as tambourine. Many house
mixes also include repeating, short, syncopated, staccato chord loops that are usually composed of 5-7 chords in a 4-beat measure.
Techno and trance, which developed alongside house, share this basic beat infrastructure, but they usually eschew house's live-music-influenced
feel and Black or Latin music influences in favor of more synthetic sound sources and approach.
The Paradise Garage nightclub in New York City
House is a descendant of disco, which blended soul, R B, funk, with celebratory messages about dancing, love, and sexuality, all underpinned with
repetitive arrangements and a steady bass drum beat. Some disco songs incorporated sounds produced with synthesizers and drum machines, and some
compositions were entirely electronic; examples include Giorgio Moroder late 1970s productions such as Donna Summer's hit single "I Feel Love"
from 1977, and several early 1980s disco-pop productions by the Hi-NRG group Lime.
House was also influenced by mixing and editing techniques earlier explored by disco DJs, producers, and audio engineers like Walter Gibbons, Tom
Moulton, Jim Burgess, Larry Levan, Ron Hardy, M M and others who produced longer, more repetitive and percussive arrangements of existing disco
recordings. Early house producers like Frankie Knuckles d similar compositions from scratch, using samplers, synthesizers, sequencers, and drum
The hypnotic electronic dance song "On and On", produced in 1984 by Chicago DJ Jesse Saunders and co-written by Vince Lawrence, had elements that
became staples of the early house sound, such as the 303 bass synthesizer and minimal vocals. It is sometimes cited as the 'first house
record', although other examples from the same time period, such as J.M. Silk's "Music is the Key" (1985) have also been cited.
Dragi Prieteni, fiind unul din cele mai bune treckere din Moldova avem onoarea s v prezentm un nou proiect care va aduce muzic select n difuzoarele
The origins of the term "house" are disputed.
The term may have its origin from a Chicago nightclub called the The Warehouse which existed from 1977 to 1982. The Warehouse was patronized primarily
by gay black and Latino men, who came to dance to disco music played by the club's resident DJ, Frankie Knuckles. Although Knuckles left the club
in 1982 and it was renamed Music Box, the term "house", short for Warehouse, is said to have become popular among Chicagoans as being synonymous with
Knuckles' musical selections as a DJ before becoming associated with his own dance music productions, even though those didn't begin until
well after the closure of The Warehouse.
Chip E.'s 1985 recording "It's House" may also have helped to define this new form of electronic music. However, Chip E. himself lends
credence to the Knuckles association, claiming the name came from methods of labelling records at the Importes Etc. record store, where he worked in
the early 1980s: bins of music that DJ Knuckles played at the Warehouse nightclub was labelled in the store "As Heard At The Warehouse", which was
shortened to simply "House". Patrons later asked for new music for the bins, which Chip E. implies was a demand the shop tried to meet by stocking
newer local club hits.
Larry Heard, aka "Mr. Fingers", claims that the term "house" reflected the fact that many early DJs d music in their own homes, using
synthesizers and drum machines, including the Roland TR-808, TR-909, and the TB 303 Bassline synthesizer-sequencer. These synthesizers were used to a
house subgenre called acid house.
Juan Atkins, an originator of Detroit techno music, claims the term "house" reflected the exclusive association of particular tracks with particular
DJs; those tracks were their "house" records (much like a restaurant might have a "house" salad dressing).
Leonard Remix Rroy, was a local DJ in Chicago back in the early 80's, who played at a small club on the South Side of Chicago,and he was the
person who originally coined the phrase "House Music". His mother would give him her old Disco and R B lps and he would play them at the small dance
club he DJ for. He stated that the reason he called the music House was because it was music that was lying around the house.He would eventually put a
sign in the window of the small tavern said "we play house music". Frankie Knuckles acknowledged this in a documentry named " The History Of House
Music". Excerpts from the documentry can be seen on youtube, and Leonard Rroy can also be seen on youtube.
This last reference goes in hand with the idea that as disco music began to lose popularity many club DJ's or 'House DJ's'
replaced the originals with these newer stripped down versions of disco hits, still incorporating the high energy elements to this new sound.
Chicago years: early 1980s – late 1980s
Main article: Chicago house
House evolved from uptempo R B and Disco music in the houses, garages and clubs of Chicago and New York City initially for local club-goers in the
"underground" club scenes, rather than for widespread commercial release. As a result, the recordings were much more conceptual, longer than the music
usually played on commercial radio. House musicians used analog synthesizers and sequencers to and arrange the electronic elements and samples on
their tracks, combining live traditional instruments and percussion and soulful vocals with preprogrammed electronic synthesizers and "beat-boxes".
Main stream record stores often did not carry these 12 inch vinyl singles, as they were not available through the major record distributors. In
Chicago, records stores such as Importes Etc., State Street Records, JR’s Music shop and Gramaphone Records were the primary suppliers of this
music. The record-store Importes Etc, is believed to be where the term “house” was introduced as a shortening of "Warehouse".
The music was still essentially disco until the early 1980s when the first stand-alone drum machines were invented. House tracks could now be given an
edge with the use of a mixer and drum machine. This was an added boost to the prestige of the individual DJs. Underground club DJs like Ron Hardy and
radio jocks the Hot Mix 5 played Italo Disco tracks like "Dirty Talk" and the "MBO Theme" by Klein M.B.O., Early B-Boy Hip Hop tracks such as Man
Parrish's "Hip Hop, Be Bop (Don't Stop)" and Afrika Bambaataa and the Soul Sonic Force's Planet Rock and Looking for the Perfect Beat
as well as electronic music by Kraftwerk; these genres were influential to the Chicago genre of House.
Jesse Saunders “Jes Say Records” who had club hits with more “B-boy Hip Hop” oriented tracks like “Come to Me” by Gwendolyn and “Dum
Dum” as well as the Italo Disco influenced “Under Cover” by Dr. Derelict released the first Chicago home made house hit, “On and On” (1984)
which had hypnotic lyrics, driving bassline, and percussion. This was the first house record pressed and sold to the general public.
In 1985, Mr Fingers's landmark "Can You Feel It?"/"Washing Machine"/"Mystery of Love" showed a jazz-influenced, lush, sound that was d using a
Roland TR-707 and Juno 6 synthesizer. This song helped to start the trend for the Deep house genre, which had a slower beat of 110-125 bpm. In the
same year, Chip E.'s "It's House" is a good example of the Chicago house style. In 1986, Phuture's "Acid Trax" (1986) showed the
development of a house music subgenre called acid house which arose from experiments with a 303 machine by Chicago musicians such as DJ Pierre.
In 1986, Nick Nicholson aka DJ Nick Nonstop d the "original" "House Nation" and "Jack My Body". "Jack My Body" was distributed on "SRO Records" and
became a House crowd favorite that forced the crowd to "jack", which was/is considered a form of house dancing. "Jack My Body" is comprised of a
simple drum beat influenced by the kick and snares found in "Let's All Chant" and a manual, hand-triggered sample of the phrase, "Ja-Ja-Ja Jack
My Body, Jack My Body..." To this date, "Jack My Body" is still a classic house favorite among "House Heads".
Early house recordings were Jamie Principle and Frankie Knuckles' "Your Love"; "On and On" by Jesse Saunders (1985) and Chip E.'s "The Jack
Trax" featuring the songs “It’s House” and “Time to Jack”, which used complex rhythms, simple bassline, sampling technology, and minimalist
vocals. By 1985, house dominated the clubs of Chicago, largely in part due to the radio play the music received on 102.7 FM WBMX which was the
brainchild of Program director Lee Michaels through WBMX's resident DJ team, the Hot Mix 5.
The Roland TB-303 bass synthesizer
The music and movement was also aided by the electronic music revolution - the arrival of cheap and compact music sequencers, drum machines (the
Roland TR-909, TR-808 and TR-707, and Latin percussion machine the TR-727) and bass modules (such as the Roland TB-303) gave house creators even wider
possibilities in creating their own sound. The acid house subgenre was developed from the experiments by DJ Pierre, Larry Heard (Mr. Fingers), and
Marshall Jefferson with the new drum and rhythm machines.
Many of the songs that defined the Chicago house sound were released by DJ International Records and Trax Records. In 1985, Trax released "Jack the
Bass" and "Funkin' with the Drums Again" by Farley Jackmaster Funk. In 1986, Trax released "No Way Back" by Adonis, Larry Heard's (as
Fingers Inc.) "Can You Feel It?" and "Washing Machine", and an early house anthem in 1986, "Move Your Body" by Marshall Jefferson, which helped to
boost the popularity of the style outside of Chicago.
In 1987, Steve 'Silk' Hurley's "Jack Your Body" was the first house track to reach No.1 in the UK Top 40 pop chart. 1987 also saw
M/A/R/R/S' "Pump Up The Volume" reach No.1 in the UK Top 40 pop chart. In 1989 Hurley transformed Roberta Flack's soft ballad "Uh Oh Look
Out" into a boisterous dance track. S'Express's "Theme from S'Express" (1988)is an example of a disco-influenced, funky acid house
tune. It uses samples from Rose Royce's song "Is it Love You're After" over a Roland 303 bassline. In 1989, Black Box - "Ride on time"
(which sampled Loleatta Holloway's 1980 disco hit, Love Sensation) hit number 1 in the UK top 40 and Technotronic's song "Pump Up the Jam"
(1989) was one of the early house records to break the top 10 on the U.S. pop charts. A year later, Madonna's "Vogue" went to number one on
charts worldwide, becoming the highest selling single on WEA up to that time. In 1992, Leftfield's song "Release the Pressure" helped to
introduce a new subgenre of house called progressive house.
House also had an influence of relaying political messages to people who were considered to be outcast of society. It offered for those who
didn't fit into mainstream American society, especially celebrated by many black guys. Frankie Knuckles made a good comparison of house saying it
was like "church for people who have fallen from grace" and Marshall Jefferson compared it to "old-time religion in the way that people just get happy
and screamin'" (30). Deep house was similar to many of the messages of freedom for the black community. Both house CDs by Joe Smooth, "Promised
Land" and Db "I Have a Dream" give similar messages of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech."Someday" by CeCe Rogers, would move house
further into the gospel stream later titled "gospel house". House was also very sexual and had much mystic in it. It went so far as to have a
"eroto-mystic delirium" (31). Jamie Principle's "Baby Wants to Ride" begins in a prayer but surprisingly is about a dominatrix who seduces a man
to "ride" her through the rest of the song.
House dance itself is a lot older than house, which arose in the early 1980s upon the end of the disco era during the times of such nightclubs as
Chicago's Warehouse and New York's Loft and Paradise Garage. House dance takes from many different dance elements such as the Lindy era,
African, Latin, Brazilian, jazz, tap, and even modern.
House dance has been debatingly broken down in three styles: Footwork, Jacking, and Lofting. It includes a variety of techniques and sub-styles that
include skating, stomping, and shuffling. It also incorporates movements from many other sources such as whacking, voguing, Capoeira, tap, and Latin
dances such as salsa. A wide variety of the movements came from jazz and bebop styles and even from African and Latin descent.
One of the primary elements in house dancing is a technique that came from Chicago that involves moving the torso forward and backward in a rippling
motion, as if a wave were passing through it. When this movement is repeated and sped up to match the beat of a song it is called jacking, or "the
jack". All footwork in house dancing is said to initiate from the way the jack moves the center of gravity through space.
House music especially deep house was a jarring kind of genre in music which brought the immoral and different aspect of the sexual and minority in
the forefront. House was definitely concerned with the sensuality of the body and setting oneself free—without the worry of outside barriers.
UK: late 1980s – early 1990s
In Britain the growth of house can be divided around the "Summer of Love" in 1988/9. House had a presence in Britain almost as early as it appeared in
Chicago. House grew in northern England, the Midlands and the South East. Founded in 1982 by Factory Records, The Haienda in
Manchester became an extension of the "Northern Soul" genre and was one of the early, key English dance music clubs.
Until 1986 the club was financially troubled; the crowds only started to grow when the resident DJs (Pickering, Park and Da Silva)
started to play house. Many underground venues and DJ nights also took place across the UK, such as the private parties hosted by an early Miss
Moneypenny's contingent in Birmingham and many London venues. House was boosted in the UK by the tour in the same year of Knuckles, Jefferson,
Fingers Inc. (Heard) and Adonis as the DJ International Tour. One of the early anthemic tunes, "Promised Land" by Joe Smooth, was covered and charted
within a week by the Style Council. The first English house tune came out in 1986 - "Carino" by T-Coy. Europeans embraced house, and began booking
legendary American house DJs to play at the big clubs, such as Ministry of Sound, whose resident, DJ Harvey brought in Larry Levan.
The house scene in cities such as Birmingham, Manchester and London were also provided with many underground Pirate Radio stations and DJs alike which
helped bolster an already contagious, but otherwise ignored by the mainstream, music genre. One of the earliest and most influential UK house and
techno record labels was Network Records (otherwise known as Kool Kat records) who helped introduce Italian and U.S. dance music to Britain as well as
promoting select UK dance music acts.
But house was also developing on Ibiza. In the 1970s Ibiza was a stop-over for the rich party crowd. By the mid-1980s a distinct Balearic mix of house
was discernible. Several clubs like Amnesia with DJ Alfredo were playing a mix of rock, pop, disco and house. These clubs, fueled by their distinctive
sound and Ecstasy, began to have an influence on the British scene. By late 1987, DJs like Paul Oakenfold and Danny Rampling were bringing the Ibiza
sound to UK clubs like the Hacienda in Manchester, and in London clubs such as Shoom in Southwark, Heaven, Future and Spectrum.
In the U.S., the music was being developed to a more sophisticated sound, moving beyond just drum loops and short samples. New York-based performers
such as Mateo Matos and Blaze had slickly produced disco house crossover tracks. In Chicago, Marshall Jefferson had formed the house group Ten City
(from "intensity"). In Detroit a proto-techno music sound began to emerge with the recordings of Juan Atkins, Derrick May and Kevin Saunderson.
Atkins, a former member of Cybotron, released Model 500 "No UFOs" in 1985, which became a regional hit, followed by dozens of tracks on Transmat,
Metroplex and Fragile. One of the most unusual was "Strings of Life" by Derrick May, a darker, more intellectual strain of house. "Techno-Scratch" was
released by the Knights Of The Turntable in 1984 which had a similar techno sound to Cybotron. The manager of the Factory nightclub, Tony Wilson, also
promoted acid house culture on his weekly TV show. The Midlands also embraced the late 1980s house scene with underground venues such as multi storey
car parks and more legal dance stations such as the Digbeth Institute (now the 'Sanctuary' and home to Sundissential).
US: late 1980s – early 1990s
Back in America the scene had still not progressed beyond a small number of clubs in Chicago, Detroit, New York, and New Jersey. Paradise Garage in
New York City was still a top club, although they now had Todd Terry, his cover of Class Action's Larry Levan mixed "Weekend" demonstrated the
continuum from the underground disco to a new house sound with hip-hop influences evident in the quicker sampling and the more rugged bass-line. While
hip-hop had made it onto radio play-lists, the only other choices were Rock, Country Western or R B.
Other influences from New York came from the hip-hop, reggae, and Latin community, and many of the New York City super producers/DJs began surfacing
for the first time (Erick Morillo, Roger Sanchez, Junior Vasquez, Danny Tenaglia, Jonathan Peters) with unique sounds that would evolve into other
genres (tribal house, progressive house, funky house). Producers such as Masters At Work and Kerri Chandler also started pioneering a richer Garage
sound that was picked up on by 'outsiders' from the worlds of jazz, hip-hop and downbeat as much as it was by house aficionados.
In the late 80's Nu Groove Records prolonged, if not launched the careers of Rheji Burrell Rhano Burrell, collectively known as Burrell (after
a brief stay on Virgin America via Timmy Registford and Frank Mendez), along with basically every relevant DJ and Producer in the NY underground
scene. The Burrell's are responsible for the "New York Underground" sound and are the undisputed champions of this style of house. Their 30+
releases on this label alone seems to support that fact. In today's market Nu Groove Record releases like the Burrells' enjoy a cult-like
following and mint vinyl can fetch $100 U.S. or more in the open market.
Influential gospel/R B-influenced Aly-us released "Time Passes On" in 1993 (Strictly Rhythm), then later, "Follow Me" which received radio airplay as
well as being played in clubs. Another U.S. hit which received radio play was the single "Time for the Perculator" by Cajmere, which became the
prototype of ghetto house sub-genre. Cajmere started the Cajual and Relief labels (amongst others). By the early 1990s artists such as Cajmere himself
(under that name as well as Green Velvet and as producer for Dajae), DJ Sneak, Glenn Underground and others did many recordings. The 1990s saw new
Chicago house artists emerge such as DJ Funk, who operates a Chicago house record label called Dance Mania, which primarily distributes ghetto house.
Ghetto house, along with acid house, were house music styles that were started in Chicago.
UK House music: The Future- Late 1980s – Early-1990s
In Britain, further experiments in the genre boosted its appeal. House and rave clubs like Lakota, Miss Moneypenny's and Cream emerged across
Britain, hosting house and dance scene events. The 'chilling out' concept developed in Britain with ambient house albums such as The
KLF's Chill Out and Analogue Bubblebath by Aphex Twin. Chillout music is often defined as a fusion of different genres, such as Ambient, Trip hop
or downtempo (later on) or New Age (older). The unifying feature of Chill Out electronica is long sustained tones and a smoother sound, rather than
the noisy, percussive sound of other styles. In 1990 dance act Forgemasters's first international hit Track With No Name is an example of an
reggae- influenced breakbeat, opera House track. By 1991 more music was added to House music and even famous legendary Pop stars and rock stars,
Madonna, U2 and Happy Mondays all became into House music with their House hits. Back In 1989 2 darker more electronic House sounds was being
developed, Rave House, Techno House which was House music with elements of techno and hardcore along with rave with artists such as Lovebomb, Tricky
Disco, LFO, Cyclone, Space Opera, Bizarre Inc., 808 State, Liquid Oxygen, Cola Boy and many more. In 1991 House music group Rhythm On The Loose
introduced more breakbeats and breaks to House. In 1989 electronic music group 808 State's Pacific State is a trumpet-influenced Deep House
At the same time, a new indie dance scene emerged. In New York, bands such as Deee-Lite furthered house's international influence. Two
distinctive tracks from this era were the Orb's "Little Fluffy Clouds" (with a distinctive vocal sample from Rickie Lee Jones) and the Happy
Mondays' "Wrote for Luck" ("WFL") which was transformed into a dance hit by Paul Oakenfold.
The UK Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994 was a government attempt to ban large rave dance events featuring music with "repetitive beats".
There were a number of abortive "Kill the Bill" demonstrations. Although the bill became law, in November 1994, it had little effect. The music
continued to grow and change, as typified by the emergence of acts like Leftfield with "Release the Pressure", which introduced dub and reggae into
the house sound. In more commercial recordings, a mix of R B with stronger basslines was used. The house scene was shaped by a variety of inflences,
including the club culture scene. Like the 1970s disco club scene, the house club scene was associated with a number of drugs which club-goers used to
enhance the dancing experience, such as amyl nitrite "poppers", MDMA, ketamine, and GHB.
A new generation of clubs like Miss Moneypenny's, Liverpool's Cream (as opposed to the original underground night, C.R.E.A.M.) and the
Ministry of Sound were opened to provide a venue for more commercial sounds. Major record companies began to open "superclubs" promoting their own
acts. These superclubs entered into sponsorship deals initially with fast food, soft drinks, and clothing companies. Flyers in clubs in Ibiza often
sported many corporate logos. A new sub-genre, Chicago hard house, was developed by DJs such as Bad Boy Bill, DJ Lynnwood, DJ Irene, Richard "Humpty"
Vission and DJ Enrie.
Pop Goes The House
Although House music was massive in the dance scene. House music also started to go into the pop scene in the late 80's with a new House music
style known as Pop-House, House music with Pop which became extremely popular in 1987, 1988 and 1989 with Artists such as, Krush, Coldcut, Yazz,
Penthouse 4, Pop Stars, Bomb The Bass, S-Express, Black Box which is an Italian Pop House group.
The 21st Century: 2000s
Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley proclaimed August 10, 2005 to be "House Unity Day" in Chicago, in celebration of the "21st anniversary of house music"
(actually the 21st anniversary of the founding of Trax Records). The proclamation recognized Chicago as "the original home of house music" and that
the music's original creators "were inspired by the love of their city, with the dream that someday their music would spread a message of peace
and unity throughout the world". DJs such as Frankie Knuckles, Marshall Jefferson, Paul Johnson and Mickey Oliver celebrated the proclamation at the
Summer Dance Series, an event organized by Chicago's Department of Cultural Affairs.
In the mid-2000s, fusion genres such as electro house, dark house, fidget house and tech house emerged. This fusion is apparent in the crossover of
musical styles by artists such as Dennis Ferrer and Booka Shade, with the former's production style having evolved from the New York soulful
house scene and the latter's roots in techno. DJs today can be heard blending all sub-genres of house as many of the best musical elements are
shared across these sub-genres.
As of the late 2000s, house influenced music retains widespread popularity in clubs throughout the world. House Music has also seen a comeback into
the mainstream with producers like Justice, David Guetta, and Benny Benassi bringing House tracks back to the US Top 40 charts.
* Sean Bidder 2002 Pump Up the Volume: A History of House Music, MacMillan. ISBN 0-7522-1986-3
* Sean Bidder 1999 The Rough Guide to House Music, Rough Guides. ISBN 1-85828-432-5
* Bill Brewster Frank Broughton 2000 Last Night a DJ Saved My Life: The History of the Disc Jockey, Grove Press. ISBN 0-8021-3688-5 and in UK: 1999
/ 2006, Headline.
* Kai Fikentscher 2000 "'You Better Work!' Underground Dance Music in New York City". Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press. ISBN
* Hewitt, Michael. Music Theory for Computer Musicians. 1st Ed. U.S. Cengage Learning, 2008. ISBN 978-1-59863-503-4
* Chris Kempster (Ed) 1996 History of House, Castle Communications. ISBN 1-86074-134-7 (A reprinting of magazine articles from the 1980s and 90s)
* Simon Reynolds 1998 Energy Flash: a Journey Through Rave Music and Dance Culture, (UK title, Pan Macmillan. ISBN 0-330-35056-0), also released in
U.S. as Generation Ecstasy : Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture (U.S. title, Routledge, 1999, ISBN 0-415-92373-5)
* Hillegonda C. Rietveld 1998 This is our House: House Music, Cultural Spaces and Technologies, Ashgate. ISBN 1-85742-242-2
* Silcott Mireille. Rave America: New School Dancescapes (1999), ECW Press. ISBN 1550223836
01. Bingo Players - Out Of My Mind (Dada Life Remix)
02. Robbie Rivera, David Jones - That Sound (Original Mix)
03. A-Trak feat. Oliver - Disco Nap (Original Mix)
04. Benny Benassi Pink Is Punk - Perfect Storm (Valentino Khan Remix)
05. David Guetta feat. Ne-Yo Akon - Play Hard (Spencer Hill Remix)
06. A-Trak Tommy Trash - Tuna Melt (Original Mix)
07. Deadmau5 Imogen Heap - Telemiscommunications (Crookers Remix)
08. Alesso Vs OneRepublic - If I Lose Myself (Alesso Remix)
09. Fedde le Grand Sultan, Ned Shepard - Long Way From Home (Original Mix)
10. Moguai - Champs (Original Mix)
11. Tigerskin - In a Trance
12. Diplo Swick - Keep It Gully (Original Mix)
13. Soulmagic - Someone Like You (The Shapeshifters 'Du Jour' Remix)
14. Jakhira - Our Destiny (Original Mix)
15. Spencer Hill - Smackdown (Original Mix)
16. Benny Benassi Pink Is Punk - Perfect Storm (Gigi Barocco Remix)
17. Tom Swoon Amba Shepherd - Not Too Late (Original Mix)
18. Greg Gold, Hugh Way - You See (Orginal Mix)
19. David Puentez feat. Shena - The One (Artistic Raw Remix)
20. Audio Jacker, Soul Power - Love Will Survive (Soul Power Remix)
21. Uberjakd - Bump Dat (Original Mix)
22. The Crookids - This World (Club Mix)
23. Kim Fai - The Eagle Has Landed (Original Mix)
24. Prok Fitch - The New Wave (Marco Lys Vs Prok Fitch Re-Rub)
25. Hot Shit! - Kill The St (Original Mix)
26. Lexer - If You Run (Wolfgang Lohr Remix)
27. DJ Mes Jeremy Joshua - Paper Chase (Original Mix)
28. Daddy's Groove - Stellar (A-Lab Remix)
29. Tom Tash Toka - Electro Dude (Original Mix)
30. Diplo Swick feat. TT The Artist Lewis Cancut - Dat A Freak (Original Mix)
31. Robbie Rivera - Shake That Booty (Original Mix)
32. Benny Benassi Pink Is Punk - Perfect Storm (Clockwork Remix)
33. Nom De Strip - Techno Saturday (Original Mix)
34. Jebu - Are U Ready (Original Mix)
35. Audio Jacker, Soul Power - Love Will Survive (Audio Jacker Remix)
36. A-Trak feat. Galantis - Jumbo (Original Mix)
37. Chris Mc Dyre - Lets Dance (Original Mix)
38. Tigerskin - For Real
39. Walden - Intropial (TV Noise Remix)
40. Scaloni feat. Alan Connor - Then You Kissed Me (Rave Mix)
41. Teqq - The Road Ahead (Original Mix)
42. The 8th Note - Heart Hertz (Original Mix)
43. David Puentez feat. Shena - The One (Vicetone Remix)
44. Mixline - Back To The Oldschool (Original Mix)
45. David Guetta feat. Ne-Yo Akon - Play Hard (Albert Neve Remix)
46. Tigerskin - Yo Duty
47. Uberjakd - Bomber (Original Mix)
48. A-Trak feat. GTA - Landline (Original Mix)
49. Robbie Rivera - Deeper (Original Mix)
50. Tocadisco - Alter Schwede! (Original Mix)